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HomeDinosaurI Know Dino Podcast Present Notes: Sinornithosaurus (Episode 244)

I Know Dino Podcast Present Notes: Sinornithosaurus (Episode 244)

Episode 244 is all about Sinornithosaurus, an early raptor from China that was lined in feathers.

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On this episode, we focus on:


  • A brand new census of the Lance & Hell Creek Formations discovered at the least 71 T. rex skulls & skeletons supply (pdf)
  • A database of over 3,000 sauropod specimens from the Morrison Formation has been printed supply
  • Damaged ribs, toes, and a bone an infection had been present in an unlucky Tenontosaurus supply
  • A helitack crew in Colorado picked up “Walter” in two plaster jackets that weighed over 1,000 kilos every supply
  • A brand new dinosaur museum opened up in Wolcott, Colorado supply
  • On September 15, animatronic dinosaurs are going to be on the Bathtub Racecourse within the UK supply
  • Springs Protect in Las Vegas has a brand new exhibit known as Dino Would possibly supply
  • The Science Museum of Minnesota just lately completed their first Dino Fest supply
  • Two Chinese language paleontologists have made an entire rendering of the bipedal Auroraceratops supply

The dinosaur of the day: Sinornithosaurus

  • Dromaeosaurid that lived within the Early Cretaceous in what’s now Liaoning, China (Yixian Formation)
  • Basal dromaeosaur
  • Helps present that earlier dromaeosaurs had been extra like birds than later dromaeosaurs
  • Small, about 3 ft (1 m) lengthy, although Gregory Paul estimated it to be 3.9 ft (1.2 m) lengthy and weigh 6.6 lb (3 kg)
  • Had feathers, just like Archaeopteryx
  • Preserved impressions of feathers discovered on the entire physique and forming the wings (feathers regarded the identical as feathers discovered on birds from the identical space)
  • Had two varieties of feathers, one sort like fashionable down feathers and one time like fashionable chicken feathers, although they regarded a bit completely different from flight feathers (no steady vane)
  • Had completely different coloured feathers round its physique. A 2012 research discovered they had been reddish-brown, yellow, black, and gray
  • Might have been in a position to glide quick distances after leaping from bushes
  • In 2018 McNamara and others analyzed the fossilized pores and skin of Beipiaosaurus, Sinornithosaurus, Microraptor, and Confuciusornis. They used electron microscopes to review their fossilized dandruff
  • Helps present how dinosaurs shed their pores and skin
  • They discovered it to be almost the identical as to dandruff in fashionable birds
  • Sinornithosaurus shed pores and skin in flakes, like fashionable birds and mammals (didn’t shed directly like a lizard or different reptiles)
  • Discovered that feathered pores and skin had advanced many (not all) fashionable attributes by the point maniraptorans took place within the Center Jurassic
  • Reveals proof that early birds and dinosaurs had been evolving pores and skin in response to having feathers (the fossilized dandruff is manufactured from corneocyte cells, which when alive are dry and stuffed with keratin (fashionable birds have fatty corneocytes with loosely packed keratin to assist them settle down shortly when flying for lengthy intervals of time)
  • The fossilized pores and skin had packed keratin which can imply the dinosaurs didn’t get as heat as fashionable birds, probably as a result of they both couldn’t fly or couldn’t fly for lengthy intervals of time
  • Carnivorous, most likely ate small animals
  • Had a sickle-shaped toe claw
  • Might have been cathemeral (lively all through the day and evening in brief spurts)
  • Described in 1999 by Xu Xing and others (discovered an nearly full fossil with feather impressions)
  • Sort species is Sinornithosaurus millenii (title means “millennium Chinese language chicken lizard”)
  • Second species is Sinornithosaurus haoiana (“Hao’s Chinese language chicken lizard”), described in 2004 by Liu and others primarily based on a second specimen discovered that had completely different cranium and hip options
  • Nonetheless, Turner, Makovicky, and Norell in 2012 urged that Sinornithosaurus haoiana was a junior synonym of Sinornithosaurus millenii
  • One other specimen, nicknamed “Dave” was described in 2001 however not named. Ji and others formally referred “Dave” to Sinornithosaurus in 2002 however mentioned it might be questionable. Stephen Czerkas and others mentioned they thought “Dave” was a specimen of Cryptovolans pauli (now thought of to be Microraptor gui). Then in 2011 Senter mentioned the holotype of Sinornithosaurus was just like “Dave” and that “Dave” was a Sinornithosaurus millenii
  • A 2012 paper by Turner, Makovicky, and Norell agreed, and located “Dave” to be a subadult Sinornithosaurus millenii
  • Holotype is on the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology in Beijing, China
  • In 2009, Empu Gong and others urged that Sinornithosaurus was venomous, primarily based on its cranium. They discovered it had lengthy and fang-like maxillary tooth with distinguished grooves (lengthy tooth, as seen in venomous animals corresponding to snakes, and the grooves supplied a channel for the venom, they usually mentioned the cavity within the jaw bone above these tooth might have been for a venom gland. Due to this, additionally they urged Sinornithosaurus hunted small prey, corresponding to birds, and used its fangs to stun the prey (chew and maintain)
  • Thought it had a low chew pressure and used fangs to puncture by way of feathers, inject venom, and shock its prey. Additionally the tooth on the entrance of the snout angled ahead, which can have been used to pluck feathers
  • In 2010, Federico Gianechini and others urged that Sinornithosaurus was not venomous, as a result of the grooved tooth usually are not distinctive to Sinornithosaurus (seen in different theropods, together with different dromaeosaurids), and that the tooth weren’t so long as Gong and others thought they had been, however that that they had come out of their sockets in order that they appeared longer. Additionally, they couldn’t discover the cavity that supposedly held the venom gland. They solely discovered regular sinus cavities
  • On the similar time, Gong and his group printed a reassessment of Gianechini and his group’s research. They mentioned that although grooved tooth are widespread in theropods (largely feathered maniraptorans), they hyopthesized venom was probably a primitive trait for all archosaurs and stayed in some lineages. Additionally they didn’t assume the tooth had been out of their sockets, although they mentioned they weren’t completely of their pure place (they mentioned some undescribed specimens had full articulated tooth that had been equally lengthy)
  • Consensus appears to be that there isn’t any clear proof that it was venomous (want extra detailed proof)

Enjoyable Truth:
Deposits of the Newest Cretaceous (AKA Maastrichtian) go by many names—for good cause.



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