Two weeks of consuming a weight-reduction plan heavy in tomatoes elevated the variety of intestine microbes and altered intestine micro organism towards a extra favorable profile in younger pigs, Ohio State researchers discovered.
After observing these outcomes with a short-term intervention, the analysis staff plans to progress to related research in folks, in search of health-related hyperlinks between tomatoes within the weight-reduction plan and modifications to the human intestine microbiome – the neighborhood of microorganisms dwelling within the gastrointestinal tract.
“It is attainable that tomatoes impart advantages by their modulation of the intestine microbiome,” stated senior creator Jessica Cooperstone, assistant professor of horticulture and crop science and meals science and expertise at The Ohio State College. “General dietary patterns have been related to variations in microbiome composition, however food-specific results have not been studied very a lot. In the end we might wish to establish in people what the function is of those explicit microorganisms and the way they may be contributing to potential well being outcomes.”
The tomatoes used within the research had been developed by Ohio State plant breeder, tomato geneticist and co-author David Francis, and are the kind sometimes present in canned tomato merchandise.
Ten not too long ago weaned management pigs had been fed a typical weight-reduction plan and 10 pigs had been fed the usual weight-reduction plan fine-tuned in order that 10% of the meals consisted of a freeze-dried powder constructed from the tomatoes.
Fiber, sugar, protein, fats and energy had been equivalent for each diets. The management and research pig populations lived individually, and researchers working the research minimized their time spent with the pigs – a sequence of precautions designed to make sure that any microbiome modifications seen with the research weight-reduction plan may very well be attributed to chemical compounds within the tomatoes.
Microbial communities within the pigs’ guts had been detected in fecal samples taken earlier than the research started after which seven and 14 days after the weight-reduction plan was launched.
The staff used a way referred to as shotgun metagenomics to sequence all microbial DNA current within the samples. Outcomes confirmed two foremost modifications within the microbiomes of pigs fed the tomato-heavy weight-reduction plan – the variety of microbe species of their guts elevated, and the concentrations of two kinds of micro organism widespread within the mammal microbiome shifted to a extra favorable profile.
This greater ratio of the phyla Bacteroidota (previously referred to as Bacteriodetes) in comparison with Bacillota (previously referred to as Firmicutes) current within the microbiome has been discovered to be linked with constructive well being outcomes, whereas different research have linked this ratio in reverse, of upper Bacillota in comparison with Bacteroidota, to weight problems.
Tomatoes account for about 22% of vegetable consumption in Western diets, and former analysis has related consumption of tomatoes with diminished threat for the event of varied circumstances that embrace heart problems and a few cancers.
However tomatoes’ impression on the intestine microbiome remains to be a thriller, and Cooperstone stated these findings in pigs – whose gastrointestinal tract is extra related than rodents’ to the human GI system – recommend it is an avenue value exploring.
“This was our first investigation as to how tomato consumption may have an effect on the microbiome, and we have characterised which microbes are current, and the way their relative abundance has modified with this tomato intervention,” she stated. “To essentially perceive the mechanisms, we have to do extra of this sort of work in the long run in people. We additionally wish to perceive the advanced interaction – how does consuming these meals change the composition of what microbes are current, and functionally, what does that do? A greater understanding might result in extra evidence-based dietary suggestions for long-term well being.”
This work was supported by the USDA, the Ohio Agricultural Analysis and Improvement Heart and the Meals for Well being initiative at Ohio State.
The research was led by Mallory Goggans, who acquired her grasp’s diploma in meals science and expertise from Ohio State in 2020. Further co-authors embrace Emma Bilbrey, Cristian Quiroz-Moreno and Sheila Jacobi of Ohio State, and Jasna Kovac of Penn State College.
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